Global Positioning Systems
Sample Case Studies
Supervision/Monitoring via Satellite
It Has Arrived. It’s
24/7 Watch Movements
Every Ten Seconds
Offender Supervision may never be the Same
Increasing for Serious/Repeat Offenders – Domestic Violence
Detention and Models of Intensive Probation/Parole Supervision of
Offenders for many years have been advanced for the purposes of close
scrutiny of offender activity upon release to the community in lieu of
incarceration or as part of a split sentence to the ends of punishment
and rehabilitation of the offender; accountability in the interests of
public safety; as well as the potential for reduced reliance upon jails
for non-violent offenders – as Alternatives to Incarceration.
over two decades, “Electronic Monitoring” in various forms has been
used to enhance offender supervision, the most prominent of which –
Radio Frequency (RF) systems have been employed that simply track the
times in and times out of the offender’s residence. Other hands-on,
staff intensive methods attempted to account for all other times and
activities; especially those set as conditions of release by the court
or parole authority.
Given the thrust of New Age satellite technology of which the
general public is generally aware, the several manufacturers of RF
equipment/software have long seen the writing on the wall and have
dedicated resources to
and non cost-prohibitive Satellite technology for applications in the
criminal justice field.
To date, just a couple of manufacturers
have brought workable hardware equipment and concomitant software to the
“marketplace” and others are in-waiting, some nearly at the ready.
In just the past year or so, about 20 states or local jurisdictions have
introduced routine or pilot programs utilizing GPS technology for
moderate to high-risk offenders and at a cost per day little more than
RF ankle bracelet electronic monitoring-begging the question; why not
use GPS for all offender types?
It’s little wonder that initial
use of GPS coupled with new age software has begun with serious, often
repeat offenders; sex offenders and domestic violence offenders. The
software accompanying satellite technology has the capacity not only to
literally “track” the movements of the offender, mapping from large
distances to inner city streets and alleyways, and with a visible
mapping spot every ten to 30 seconds (depending on the manufacturer); it
also can set up specific ZONES. These Zones are commonly referred to as
either an INTRUSION zone or an EXCLUSION zone; up to 20 of which can be
set for an offender as a concentric circle from several feet to hundreds
of feet or miles.
Exclusion Zone may refer to an area around a school(s) or domicile(s)
within which the offender is considered in Violation, i.e., the domicile
of the domestic violence victim(s) or schools and playgrounds for
children, given a pedophile sex offender. An Inclusion Zone refers to a
like area but usually far smaller (a specific street address); an area
or place where the offender is required to be, i.e., work,
school, treatment, probation office, etc. at a given time and day of the
week – no more guesswork whether or not the offender attended required
A.A. or other such conditions of probation, voluntary treatment or other
doubt is left that “Big Brother” can and may be watching an
offender’s every move.